SUMMARY: Afatinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that irreversibly inhibits EGFR (ErbB1), HER2 (ErbB2), and ErbB4. In this study, chemo naïve patients with advanced stage adenocarcinoma of the lung (stage IIIB/IV) with EGFR mutations, were randomly assigned to receive either Afatinib or a combination of Pemetrexed and Cisplatin. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Treatment with Afatinib resulted in a significantly prolonged PFS compared to combination chemotherapy (median 11.1 vs 6.9 months; HR 0.58; P=0.0004). Further, patients in the Afatinib group had a higher objective response rate ((56% vs 23%; p<0.0001), as well as significant delay in symptom progression, compared to the combination chemotherapy group. Yang JC-H, Schuler MH, Yamamoto N, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(suppl; abstr LBA7500).