SUMMARY: GILOTRIF® (Afatinib) is an oral, irreversible blocker of the ErbB family which includes EGFR (ErbB1), HER2 (ErbB2), ErbB3 and ErbB4. The approval of GILOTRIF® was based on a multi-center, international, open-label, randomized, phase III trial, in which 345 patients with Stage IIIB (wet)/IV lung adenocarcinoma, with tumors demonstrating Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletions or exon 21 (L858R) substitution mutations, as detected by an FDA-approved test, were enrolled in a 2:1 ratio. Patients were randomized to receive GILOTRIF® 40 mg orally once daily (n=230) or ALIMTA® (Pemetrexed)/Cisplatin (n=115). Patients were stratified according to EGFR mutation status (exon 19 deletion vs. exon 21 L858R vs. ‘other’) and race (Asian vs. non-Asian). The primary endpoint was Progression Free Survival (PFS). The median PFS in the GILOTRIF® group was 11.1 months and 6.9 months in the chemotherapy group (HR= 0.58, P<0.001). In patients whose tumors demonstrated EGFR mutations, the median PFS was 13.6 months in the GILOTRIF® arm and 6.9 months in the chemotherapy arm (HR= 0.47, P<0.0001). Objective response rates were 50.4% and 19.1% in the GILOTRIF® and chemotherapy groups respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival between the two treatment groups. The most frequent adverse reactions in the GILOTRIF® group were skin rash, pruritus, stomatitis, diarrhea and decreased appetite. The authors concluded that GILOTRIF® is better than chemotherapy in the first line treatment of EGFR mutant Non Small Cell Lung Cancer patients. However, it remains to be seen if this agent is superior to TARCEVA® (Erlotinib) and IRESSA® (Gefitinib). Yang JC, Shuler M, Yamamoto N, et al. J Clin Oncol 2012;30(18,Suppl):abstract LBA 7500.