Radiotherapy with or without Chemotherapy in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

SUMMARY: In this phase III trial, 360 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer were randomized to receive radiation therapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy. The chemotherapy regimen consisted of 5-fluorouracil given on days 1-5 and days16-20 of radiotherapy and mitomycin C given on day 1. The primary end point of this study was locoregional disease free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival and toxicities. The locoregional disease–free survival at two years was 67% in the chemoradiation group and 54% in the radiation therapy only group. With a median follow-up of 69.9 months, the hazard ratio in the chemoradiation group was 0.68 (P=0.03). The overall survival at five years was 48% in the chemoradiation group and 35% in the radiation therapy only group with a hazard ratio of 0.82 (P=0.16). The authors concluded that for patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer, concurrent chemoradiation significantly improved locoregional disease free survival compared to radiation therapy only. James ND, Hussain SA, Hall E, et al. N Engl J Med 2012; 366:1477-1488