SUMMARY: The American Cancer Society estimates that tobacco use is responsible for nearly 1 in 5 deaths in the United States and accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths. Smokeless tobacco products are a major source of cancer causing nitrosamines, and increase the risk of developing cancer of the oropharynx, esophagus, and pancreas. Cigarette smoke contains more than 7,000 chemicals, many of which are toxic and some linked to cancer. E-cigarettes or Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) were first developed in China and introduced to the U.S. market in 2007. When a smoker inhales through the mouth piece of an e-cigarette, the air flow triggers a sensor that switches on a small lithium battery powered heater, which in turn vaporizes liquid nicotine along with PolyEthylene Glycol (PEG) present in a small cartridge. The PEG vapor looks like smoke. The potent liquid form of nicotine extracted from tobacco is tinctured with fragrant flavors such as chocolate, cherry and bubble gum, coloring substances, as well other chemicals and these e-liquids are powerful neurotoxins.
With the rapid growth of the e-cigarette industry and the evidence of potential dangers and risk to public health, particularly children, experts from the world's leading lung organizations were compelled to release a position statement on electronic cigarettes, specifically focusing on their potential adverse effects on human health and calling on government organizations to ban or restrict the use of e-cigarettes, until their impact on health is better understood. According to the National Youth Tobacco Survey, the use of e-cigarettes has tripled from 2013 to 2014 among middle school and high school students. Epidemiological data have shown that nicotine use is a gateway to the use of cocaine and marijuana and subsequent lifelong addiction. E-cigarettes and other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), unlike combustible cigarettes and many other tobacco products are not currently regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Smoking more than one pack of cigarettes a day has been associated with an increased risk of mortality among patients with bladder cancer. E-cigarettes have been advertised and promoted as a safer way of delivering the stimulating effects of tobacco smoke, without the harmful health risks. Contrary to this claim, over 90% of inhaled nicotine is excreted to urine. Nicotine can be nitrosatized in urothelial cells and then further metabolized into carcinogenic nitrosamines and formaldehyde, which in turn can induce DNA damage in the bladder mucosa. Additionally, these metabolites can also block DNA repair, increasing cancer risk.
The authors in this study compared the urine of e-cigarette users to that of nonsmokers, for known bladder carcinogens. There are five known bladder carcinogens that are either present in traditional cigarettes or common solvents believed to be used in some e-cigarette formulations, and they include (benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, o-toluidine and 2-naphthylamine. The limit of detection of these carcinogens in this study was 10-100 ng/ml. Urine samples were collected from 13 e-cigarette users and 10 non-smoking, non e-cigarette using controls. The mean age was 39 years and participants were predominantly male and had abstained completely from traditional cigarettes, for at least 6 months prior to specimen collection.
It was noted that the urine from 92% of e-cigarette users tested positive for two of the five carcinogenic compounds whereas none of the controls tested positive for these carcinogens. Interestingly, all study participants considered e-cigarettes were safe, when interviewed by the study investigators.
It was concluded that in this important pilot study, majority of the e-cigarette users had carcinogenic metabolites in the urine, which can contribute to the development of bladder cancer. This study underscores the importance both traditional and e-cigarette smoking cessation, for bladder cancer prevention. MP88-14 EVALUATION OF E-CIGARETTES USERS URINE FOR KNOWN BLADDER CARCINOGENS. Fuller T, Acharya A, Bhaskar G, et al. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2017.02.2739